Friday, September 28, 2007

The Big Ten

Here is a little note on the Big Ten, for those of you who like to keep this sort of thing in mind.

Non-meritorious acts are ten in number, comprised of three of the body, four of the speech, and three of the mind. These are:

1. Killing, defined by a living being which is the object of the action, the absence of any mistaken identity, a specific intention to kill that being, an act that one knows will result in the death of that being, and the consequent death of that being.
Types of Killing
The three principal types are (1) killing because of desire, such as killing for animal products, or killing in defense, (2) killing because of anger, such as murder with malice aforethought, and (3) killing because of ignorance, such as stepping upon insects.
Results of Killing
The completely developed result of killing is rebirth as a sentient being in hell; if reborn as a human the result is one likes to take life; one will have a shortened life, plagued by illness; one will, for a succession of lives meet with being killed, and one will be born in a dangerous, unfavorable environment.

2. Stealing, defined by something in the possession of another, knowledge that it is another’s possession, a knowing act, and the transfer of possession.
Types of Stealing
The three principal types are (1) stealing by force, such as armed robbery, (2) stealing by clandestine means, such as burglary, and (3) stealing by deceitful means, such as fraud.
Results of Stealing
The completely developed result of stealing is rebirth as hungry ghost; if reborn as a human the result is one likes to steal; one will be born in conditions of poverty and will be obliged to lose what little one has, and the environment will be impoverished, subject to snow and hail.

3. Sexual Misconduct, defined by knowledge that the act of sexual intercourse is prohibited, the act of sexual intercourse itself, and satisfaction upon completion. Note that there is a differentiation between sexual misconduct and improper sexual conduct.
Types of Sexual Misconduct
Sexual misconduct is described as (1) sexual intercourse with otherwise committed persons, such as someone else’s wife, husband, significant other, or concubine, (2) sexual intercourse with relatives, such as one’s parents, siblings, or children, (3) sexual intercourse that takes advantage of another’s particular status, or against someone’s will, and (4) sexual intercourse that violates one’s vows of chastity, or those of another. Improper sexual conduct is differentiated as sexual intercourse that does not rise to the level of misconduct, but otherwise occurs at inappropriate times and places, or in an inappropriate manner.
Results of Sexual Misconduct
The completely developed result of sexual misconduct is rebirth as a hungry ghost; if reborn as a human the result is one is always dissatisfied with one’s partner and continually seeking another; one will have unattractive, argumentative and disloyal partners; one’s partners will side with enemies and become hostile, and the environment will be squalid and filthy.

4. Lying, defined by the absence of any mistake, an intention to deceive, conscious utterance of a lie, and actual deception of the hearer. Note that the deceit may be of commission or omission, i.e. failure to disclose that which one has a duty to disclose.
Types of Lying
Lying is described as (1) deceitful words that neither benefit one’s self nor injure another, such as the lies told by children, or elderly people suffering from senility, (2) lies that actually result in benefit to one’s self or harm to another, and (3) lies that claim qualities one does not possess.
Results of Lying
The completely developed result of lying is rebirth as an animal; if reborn as a human the result is to like to lie. One will be the subject of libel and slander, one’s voice will be unpleasant, and one’s breath will be foul. There will be instability in personal influence and material fortune, and one will be at odds with one’s surroundings. One will be liable to trickery perpetrated by friends, enemies, and strangers, and will fearfully live in conditions of extreme tension and nervousness. One will be abused without apparent cause, and will be betrayed. The environment will have extremes of temperature and terrain.

5. Verbal abuse, defined by a specific person who is addressed, harsh speech to that person, and that person’s resultant discomfort.
Types of Verbal abuse
Verbal abuse is described as (1) public speech that exposes someone’s faults, (2) indirect speech that wounds someone, and (3) private speech that wounds someone.
Results of Verbal abuse
The completely developed result of verbal abuse is rebirth as a sentient being in hell; if born as a human the result is to like to engage in harsh speech. One will hear unpleasant words and sounds. One will be constantly criticized. Even if one tries to make amends, this will become the cause of further criticism. The environment will be hot and dry, with numerous diseases, and poor water.

6. Divisive Speech, defined by two people who are either neutral or in harmony, speech intended to divide the parties, and actual discord between the parties because of said speech.
Types of Divisive Speech
Divisive speech is described as (1) public speech, directly addressed to the parties, (2) indirect speech, and (3) private speech.
Results of Divisive Speech
The completely developed result of divisive speech is rebirth as a sentient being in hell; if born as a human the result is to like discord, and to live an exceedingly lonely life. There will be numerous family quarrels, and one’s family will be broken. The environment will be inhospitable and travel will be difficult.

7. Idle Speech, defined by speech motivated by defilement, a straying mind, and the actual occurrence of talk leading to attachment or aversion.
Types of Idle Speech
Idle speech is described as (1) meaningless incantations, (2) speech to no purpose, such as storytelling, (3) common gossip, and (4) explaining doctrine to beings incapable of grasping its meaning.
Results of Idle Speech
The completely developed result of idle speech is rebirth as an animal; if born as a human, one will like to chatter but no one else will like to listen. One will not be trusted. Nothing will be gained from one’s efforts, and one will experience a series of failures. The environment is unstable, with confused seasons.

8. Covetousness, defined by the wealth, possessions, status, or reputation of another and an obsession with said wealth, possessions, status, or reputation.
Types of Covetousness
Covetousness is described as (1) desire for the wealth or conditions of others, (2) attachment to one’s own wealth or conditions, to the extent that one denies another their benefit, and (3) desire for wealth or conditions that belong to nobody, such as desire for hidden treasure, artistic abilities, or abstract fame.
Results of Covetousness
The completely developed result of covetousness is rebirth as a hungry ghost; if one is born as a human, the result is constant desire attended by great frustration and anxiety. The environment will not be productive, subject to sudden changes.

9. Evil Intent, defined by a living being that is the object of rancor, and a deep wish to injure that being, whether said injury be physical, mental, or circumstantial.
Types of Evil Intent
Evil intent is described as (1) evil intent arising from anger or hatred, (2) evil intent arising from jealousy, and (3) evil intent arising from resentment, vengefulness, or ignorance.
Results of Evil Intent
The completed developed result of evil intent is rebirth as a sentient being in hell; if reborn as a human, the result is to have an angry disposition. People will, for no reason, treat one as an enemy, and one’s physical constitution will be weak. There will be sudden reversals of fortune. Difficulties will arise for no reason, and happiness will suddenly disappear. There will be wars and wicked rulers. Dangerous reptiles and predatory animals will abound. The environment will be subject to earthquakes, floods, droughts, and storms.

10. Wrong Views, described by conscious belief in an ill-conceived doctrine, in the face of substantial evidence that refutes such doctrine.
Types of Wrong Views
Wrong views are described as (1) disbelief in the law of karma, (2) belief that everything is permanent, or conversely, nihilistic belief, (3) belief that rules or ritual behaviors are the sole means of liberation, and (4) belief in a self-entity.
Results of Wrong Views
The completely developed result of wrong views is rebirth as an animal; if reborn as a human, the result is to be thoroughly stupid, and to be of dishonest and deceitful temperament. Alternatively, one will be gullible and careless. The body will be weak and malnourished. The environment will be poor and barren, and comforts will be few.

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